Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Cause of Phobias Essay - 721 Words

The Cause of Phobias Thesis: We are not born with phobias – a phobia is learnt because it has become associated with an object or an experience that is unpleasant. According to the behaviourist, a phobia has to be learnt. This can happen in one of two ways: classical or operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is where an object/experience becomes associated with something unpleasant or causes pain/fear. J Watson and R Rayner tested this in a controversial experiment in 1920, in the case of little Albert. The stimulus may be all kinds of things, an object, a person or a sound. By itself it has no effect but once it has become associated with the UCS (unconditional stimulus)†¦show more content†¦By not going to the pool the unpleasant experience is avoided, this is negative reinforcement. Some areas where classical conditioning could be criticised are the ethics involved with the experiments. The person who is to be conditioned would experience an enormous amount of upset and discomfort. It is said that a phobia can be unlearned; this process is called extinction. I believe that for extinction to take place it would be a longer and be even more traumatic process for the participant than the original conditioning. This may well be the reason why little Albert was removed from the experiment before extinction took place. In operant conditioning, no consideration is given to the possibility of there being a valid reason for the person to be upset by a certain stimulus or place. If the problem was addressed then perhaps phobia development could be avoided and the experience or object could become bearable or perhaps even enjoyable. Anti-Thesis: A phobia develops after we have had a bad experience, perhaps as a child, which we have repressed. Or what if we have watched the fear that a stimulus triggers in someone else – will this cause a fear in us? Or perhaps some of us are indeed born with a phobia that has evolved through the ages? E.g. a child is out with an older sibling being taken for a walkShow MoreRelatedCauses Of Dental Phobia And Reasons Essay2245 Words   |  9 PagesThere are many causes of dental phobia and reasons why individuals just do not want to visit the dentist bi-yearly for an exam or even for further procedures. While a lot of causes are unknown, there are some that are more obvious. Some people have a generalized fear of pain. This is a very common reason for an individual to skip the dentist office altogether. This reason of phobia is usually caused by an unpleased or painful previous dental experience or from someone else’s story about theirRead MoreThe History, Causes and Effects, and Treatment of Phobias Essay1325 Words   |  6 PagesThe History, Causes and Effects, and Treatment of Phobias Just imagine for a moment that you have a cynophobia or the fear of dogs, would this be how you would feel. Driving down the road the oil light comes on. I must stop the car to add more oil or I will damage the car engine. This looks like a good place to pull over. Ill just stop in front of this house. The oil is in the trunk, so Ill pop the top first, then get the oil out of the trunk. OK, I have the oil, but what if thereRead MorePhobias and potential causes, symptoms, and treatements Essay2410 Words   |  10 PagesA phobia can best be defined as an abnormal, intense, and irrational fear. This fear can be of a given situation, organism, or object. Dictionary website (2010) states that the word phobia comes from the Greek word that means fear. For every letter in the alphabet there are phobias that start with the letters A to Z. An estimated 18 percent of U.S adult population is estimated to suffer some kind of phobia as stated in the Electronic Ardell Wellness Report (2 010). In the mind of the person whoRead MoreSocial anxiety (or social phobia) is a disorder that alienates people and causes them to avoid600 Words   |  3 PagesSocial anxiety (or social phobia) is a disorder that alienates people and causes them to avoid social situations at all costs. It is described by the National Institute of Mental Health as â€Å"a strong fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed (NIMH).† This means that people with this disorder have a fear of people’s thoughts and as a result will try to isolate themselves from others. Social anxiety has a very large limit as to the things that can trigger it. It can go from the simplestRead MorePhobias: Effects and Treatments of Phobias Essay1534 Words   |  7 Pagesand situations involving spiders. Should phobias be treated in everybody, including young children? Phobias should be treated seriously, because they cause disruptions in the lives of the victims, they leave emotional and psych ological scars, and the cause acute distress and panic attacks that take a normal situation and make it terrifying. A phobia is an irrational fear of an object or situation (â€Å"PhobiaFacts – Phobias†). Every fear is a phobia though there may not be an official nameRead MorePhobias, By Richard Kasschau Essay1183 Words   |  5 Pagessuffered from agoraphobia. Phobias are not something I have experience with, but after hearing this story, I was curious and did some research. I found several interesting articles about phobias that explained what a phobia is, unique examples, as well as causes. Let s start by defining the term phobia and citing some examples, hopefully none of you are phobophobic, or afraid of phobias. The goal of my first main point is to familiarize everyone will the concept of a phobia, as well as some examplesRead MoreHow Phobias Affect People And How Can Overcome Their Phobia883 Words   |  4 PagesPurpose: At the end of my speech, the audience will know how phobias affect people and how to overcome their phobia. I. Introduction a. Imagine being so afraid of something that you try everything in your power to avoid it. For example, someone who fears spiders is not going to walk that trail that leads into a wooded area and you can almost guarantee that the person who isn’t too fond of heights isn’t going to walk across that tall bridge. If you ask these people why they won’t partake in theseRead MoreDog Phobia Case Study1741 Words   |  7 PagesDog Phobia Case Study University of Phoenix Psych /504 Personality Theories February 4, 2013 Dog Phobia Case Study A phobia is an â€Å"irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid the subject of the phobia† (Ankrom, 2009 pg.325). Phobias are a type of anxiety disorder that may leave an individual with a strong irrational fear of something that poses very little or no danger to the individual. Phobias, to the individualRead MoreIs Fear Or Phobia? Essay1424 Words   |  6 PagesFear or Phobia? Fear. Fear is an emotion that we have all experienced at least once or twice throughout our lives. It’s actually quite normal to be a little nervous around a snake slithering at your feet, or maybe even getting sweaty palms before giving a speech in front of a large crowd. But when that fear starts to become unbearable, so much so to the point that it becomes difficult to function, there is a possibility that something a little past a simple fear is being experienced. A phobia is whatRead MoreThe Conscious And Subconscious Facets of a Phobia1512 Words   |  7 Pagesavoid is considered a phobia 1. The word â€Å"phobia† originates from the Greek word Phà ³bos that translates as morbid fear 5. Phobias present themselves in different intensities. For example, one person may show negligible symptoms of claustrophobia while another could be completely conspicuous and avoid enclosed spaces altogether. Studies show that the reason for phobias to arise comes from traumatic e vents that took place in a person’s childhood. The definition of a phobia is interpolated into two

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Bulimia Nervosa Argument - 1639 Words

Bolanle Soyombo Cox AP Lit A2 April 18, 2012 Bulimia Nervosa: Argument Although bulimia nervosa can be treated in multiple fashions, there is a specific treatment that is proven to be the most effective in not only bulimia nervosa, but also other anxiety related disorders. This effective treatment is an specific form of short term psychotherapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is productive in both reducing the amount of times one may purge in a day and diminishing the entire disorder altogether; it is a diverse set of problem specific interventions. According to Brian Sheldon, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a psychological approach for the treatment of family, personal, and mental problems. This technique is intended to help clients†¦show more content†¦Unlike interpersonal psychotherapy, with the use of medication, CBT attains several forms of intervention and models that can be used for certain situations. These forms are tailored not only to the affected patient but also toward the patient s family. There is therapy for the perfect, overprotective, and chaotic family. These forms all have specifics that set their therapeutic sessions apart, but are similar in that they all begin with a technique called joining. Joining is basically an establishment of alliance between the therapist and the family (Killian). Therapists are advised to discover how the family members feel toward the problem in this situation. A way of ensuring family involvement would be to set specific guidelines about the affect patient s behavior and the family s reactions toward the behavior. For example, a therapist may initiate a plan in which the patient must be responsible for replacing the family food in which he/she binges on. This activity will enhance the removal of the rest of the family to be in constant fear for the patient; it will also allow the patient to begin to regain control of one aspect of his/her life. Common goals within this type of family include regulation of emotional availability between the parent(s ) and the bulimic patient, facilitation of direct communication, and negotiation of conflict and its resolution (Killian). Besides interventions, there are also models that can be used to dealShow MoreRelatedEating Disorders Are Generally Characterized By Any Range Of Abnormal Or Disturbed Eating Habits924 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Feeding and Eating Disorders†. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa have endured some changes in the revision of the DSM-5, while there were additional disorders added. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder were two disorders that have been introduced in the DSM-5. The severity of eating disorders is also a new system of classification which ranges from mild, moderate and severe. According to the DSM-5 (2013), Anorexia Nervosa is defined as restrictive energy intakeRead MoreEating Disorders Can Be Generally Characterized By Any Range Of Abnormal Or Disturbed Eating Habits897 Words   |  4 Pages The DSM IV has expanded from two categories of eating disorders; Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, to three categories; now including Binge Eating Disorder. As defined in the DSM IV, Anorexia Nervosa is predominately found in adolescent girls and young women. The disorder is defined as distorted body image and excessive dieting that leads to severe weight loss with an obsessive fear of becoming fat. Bulimia nervosa is defined by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate behav ¬iorsRead MoreDieting And Fitness Routines That Can Help Me Lose Weight1469 Words   |  6 Pagesbut it also is lethal. Promoting skinniness perpetually is devising low self-esteem in young girls resulting in eating disorders. Paulin rightfully ends her essay stating that skinny should not be everything, but she does not intricately extend her argument following the dangers of the conflicting mindset that skinny is everything. The veneration of skinniness and chastising of obesity assemble our society significantly. Society construes skinniness as being the only important goal; that it gives othersRead MoreEssay on Childhood Sexual Abuse and E ating Disorders1579 Words   |  7 PagesWaller, 1995; Pope Hudson, 1992). As observed in a paper by Dansky, Brewerton, Kilpatrick, and O’Neil (1997), authors of three recent studies have concluded that childhood sexual abuse was â€Å"not a significant risk factor in the development of bulimia nervosa† (Kinzl, Traweger, Guenther, Biebel, 1994; Pope, Mangweith, Negrao, Hudson, Cordas, 1994; Rorty, Yager, Rossotto, 1994). Overall, many researchers have been unable to conclude, from current data, that childhood sexual abuse is a risk factorRead More The Importance of Psychotherapy and Medication in the Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa1828 Words   |  8 PagesThe Importance of Psychotherapy and Medication in the Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa This researched argument is on the disorder of bulimia nervosa. The reason behind my writing about the topic of bulimia is because my sister suffers from it and I want to know how to help her. I also would like to be able to share the information I obtained while doing my research. I want to argue the importance of having both psychotherapy and medication in the treatment for the people afflicted with this seriousRead More We Must Work Together to Defeat Eating Disorders1873 Words   |  8 Pagesmillion Americans suffer with an eating disorder† (National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, 2013, p.1). Though many may think that an eating disorder is only common in a woman’s life, men also suffer from this disease. Taking that statistic further, â€Å"ninety five percent of Americans between the ages of twelve and twenty five have an eating disorder† (National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, 2013, p.1). Men and women develop an eating disorder whichRead MoreDevelopment of Eating Disorders1218 Words   |  5 Pagesintake of food and develop from a number of interrelated issues. Much of the research into eating disorders has focused particularly on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and its developmental causes. Anorexia nervosa is a psychological disorder characterised by delusions of being overweight resulting in conspicuous distortion of body image. Bulimia nervosa, on the other hand, involves excessive binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting to obviate weight gain. Both anorexic and bulimic individualsRead MoreAbstract. Through Research We Can See The Causes, Misdiagnosis,1045 Words   |  5 Pagesdisorders with a complex etiology involving transactions among sociocultural, psychological, and biological influences† (Culbert, Racin, Klump, 2015). There are several different types of eating disorders. The most common being anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Other types incl ude binge eating, vomiting and food restriction (Uniacke Broft, 2016). A large majority of symptoms associated with eating disorders stem from one not liking the way one looks (Uniacke Broft, 2016). Once someone hasRead MoreThe Case Of Laur Final Case Study Analysis2772 Words   |  12 PagesPsychopathology Roxanne Roybal de Diaz American Public University Abstract Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating with inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. Cognitive Behavior Therapy and antidepressant drug therapy are treatment modalities that have shown promise with patients diagnosed with eating disorders, more so with Bulimia than with Anorexia, (Comer, 2014). In this case study analysis, a synthesis of researchedRead MoreDisney Channel Star Demi Lovato Essay2258 Words   |  10 PagesIn 2010, Disney Channel star Demi Lovato, age 18, began a hard journey of rehabilitation due to the eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, which causes one to binge eat and then purge because of poor body image. She has suffered since she was a child with bulimia nervosa because of heritability and social pressures. Demi’s mother and grandmother both suffered from bulimia, so it became Demi’s way of life. Not only was her eating disorder influenced by her genetics, but also because of th e beauty pageants

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Da Vinci Code Chapter 68-72 Free Essays

CHAPTER 68 New York editor Jonas Faukman had just climbed into bed for the night when the telephone rang. A little late for callers, he grumbled, picking up the receiver. An operator’s voice asked him,† Will you accept charges for a collect call from Robert Langdon?† Puzzled, Jonas turned on the light. We will write a custom essay sample on The Da Vinci Code Chapter 68-72 or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Uh†¦ sure, okay.† The line clicked. â€Å"Jonas?† â€Å"Robert? You wake me up and you charge me for it?† â€Å"Jonas, forgive me,† Langdon said. â€Å"I’ll keep this very short. I really need to know. The manuscript I gave you. Have you – â€Å" â€Å"Robert, I’m sorry, I know I said I’d send the edits out to you this week, but I’m swamped. Next Monday. I promise.† â€Å"I’m not worried about the edits. I need to know if you sent any copies out for blurbs without telling me?† Faukman hesitated. Langdon’s newest manuscript – an exploration of the history of goddess worship – included several sections about Mary Magdalene that were going to raise some eyebrows. Although the material was well documented and had been covered by others, Faukman had no intention of printing Advance Reading Copies of Langdon’s book without at least a few endorsements from serious historians and art luminaries. Jonas had chosen ten big names in the art world and sent them all sections of the manuscript along with a polite letter asking if they would be willing to write a short endorsement for the jacket. In Faukman’s experience, most people jumped at the opportunity to see their name in print. â€Å"Jonas?† Langdon pressed. â€Å"You sent out my manuscript, didn’t you?† Faukman frowned, sensing Langdon was not happy about it. â€Å"The manuscript was clean, Robert, and I wanted to surprise you with some terrific blurbs.† A pause. â€Å"Did you send one to the curator of the Paris Louvre?† â€Å"What do you think? Your manuscript referenced his Louvre collection several times, his books are in your bibliography, and the guy has some serious clout for foreign sales. Sauniere was a no-brainer.† The silence on the other end lasted a long time. â€Å"When did you send it?† â€Å"About a month ago. I also mentioned you would be in Paris soon and suggested you two chat. Did he ever call you to meet?† Faukman paused, rubbing his eyes. â€Å"Hold on, aren’t you supposed to bein Paris this week?† â€Å"I am in Paris.† Faukman sat upright. â€Å"You called me collect from Paris?† â€Å"Take it out of my royalties, Jonas. Did you ever hear back from Sauniere? Did he like the manuscript?† â€Å"I don’t know. I haven’t yet heard from him.† â€Å"Well, don’t hold your breath. I’ve got to run, but this explains a lot Thanks.† â€Å"Robert – â€Å"But Langdon was gone. Faukman hung up the phone, shaking his head in disbelief Authors, he thought. Even the sane ones are nuts. Inside the Range Rover, Leigh Teabing let out a guffaw. â€Å"Robert, you’re saying you wrote a manuscript that delves into a secret society, and your editor sent a copy to that secret society?† Langdon slumped. â€Å"Evidently.† â€Å"A cruel coincidence, my friend.† Coincidence has nothing to do with it, Langdon knew. Asking Jacques Sauniere to endorse a manuscript on goddess worship was as obvious as asking Tiger Woods to endorse a book on golf. Moreover, it was virtually guaranteed that any book on goddess worship would have to mention the Priory of Sion. â€Å"Here’s the million-dollar question,† Teabing said, still chuckling. â€Å"Was your position on the Priory favorable or unfavorable?† Langdon could hear Teabing’s true meaning loud and clear. Many historians questioned why the Priory was still keeping the Sangreal documents hidden. Some felt the information should have been shared with the world long ago. â€Å"I took no position on the Priory’s actions.† â€Å"You mean lack thereof.† Langdon shrugged. Teabing was apparently on the side of making the documents public. â€Å"I simply provided history on the brotherhood and described them as a modern goddess worship society, keepers of the Grail, and guardians of ancient documents.† Sophie looked at him. â€Å"Did you mention the keystone?† Langdon winced. He had. Numerous times. â€Å"I talked about the supposed keystone as an example of the lengths to which the Priory would go to protect the Sangreal documents.† Sophie looked amazed. â€Å"I guess that explains P. S. Find Robert Langdon.† Langdon sensed it was actually something else in the manuscript that had piqued Sauniere’s interest, but that topic was something he would discuss with Sophie when they were alone. â€Å"So,† Sophie said, â€Å"you lied to Captain Fache.† â€Å"What?† Langdon demanded. â€Å"You told him you had never corresponded with my grandfather.† â€Å"I didn’t! My editor sent him a manuscript.† â€Å"Think about it, Robert. If Captain Fache didn’t find the envelope in which your editor sent the manuscript, he would have to conclude that you sent it.† She paused. â€Å"Or worse, that you hand- delivered it and lied about it.† When the Range Rover arrived at Le Bourget Airfield, Remy drove to a small hangar at the far end of the airstrip. As they approached, a tousled man in wrinkled khakis hurried from the hangar, waved, and slid open the enormous corrugated metal door to reveal a sleek white jet within. Langdon stared at the glistening fuselage. â€Å"That’s Elizabeth?† Teabing grinned. â€Å"Beats the bloody Chunnel.† The man in khakis hurried toward them, squinting into the headlights. â€Å"Almost ready, sir,† he called in a British accent. â€Å"My apologies for the delay, but you took me by surprise and – † He stopped short as the group unloaded. He looked at Sophie and Langdon, and then Teabing. Teabing said, â€Å"My associates and I have urgent business in London. We’ve no time to waste. Please prepare to depart immediately.† As he spoke, Teabing took the pistol out of the vehicle and handed it to Langdon. The pilot’s eyes bulged at the sight of the weapon. He walked over to Teabing and whispered,† Sir, my humble apologies, but my diplomatic flight allowance provides only for you and your manservant. I cannot take your guests.† â€Å"Richard,† Teabing said, smiling warmly,† two thousand pounds sterling and that loaded gun say you can take my guests.† He motioned to the Range Rover. â€Å"And the unfortunate fellow in the back.† CHAPTER 69 The Hawker 731’s twin Garrett TFE-731 engines thundered, powering the plane skyward with gut- wrenching force. Outside the window, Le Bourget Airfield dropped away with startling speed. I’m fleeing the country, Sophie thought, her body forced back into the leather seat. Until this moment, she had believed her game of cat and mouse with Fache would be somehow justifiable to the Ministry of Defense. I was attempting to protect an innocent man.I was trying to fulfill my grandfather’s dying wishes.That window of opportunity, Sophie knew, had just closed. She was leaving the country, without documentation, accompanying a wanted man, and transporting abound hostage. If a† line of reason† had ever existed, she had just crossed it. At almost the speed of sound. Sophie was seated with Langdon and Teabing near the front of the cabin – the Fan Jet ExecutiveElite Design, according to the gold medallion on the door. Their plush swivel chairs were bolted to tracks on the floor and could be repositioned and locked around a rectangular hardwood table. A mini-boardroom. The dignified surroundings, however, did little to camouflage the less than dignified state of affairs in the rear of the plane where, in a separate seating area near the rest room, Teabing’s manservant Remy sat with the pistol in hand, begrudgingly carrying out Teabing’s orders to stand guard over the bloody monk who lay trussed at his feet like a piece of luggage. â€Å"Before we turn our attention to the keystone,† Teabing said,† I was wondering if you would permit me a few words.† He sounded apprehensive, like a father about to give the birds-and-the-bees lecture to his children. â€Å"My friends, I realize I am but a guest on this journey, and I am honored as such. And yet, as someone who has spent his life in search of the Grail, I feel it is my duty to warn you that you are about to step onto a path from which there is no return, regardless of the dangers involved.† He turned to Sophie. â€Å"Miss Neveu, your grandfather gave you this cryptex in hopes you would keep the secret of the Holy Grail alive.† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"Understandably, you feel obliged to follow the trail wherever it leads.† Sophie nodded, although she felt a second motivation still burning within her. The truth about my family.Despite Langdon’s assurances that the keystone had nothing to do with her past, Sophie still sensed something deeply personal entwined within this mystery, as if this cryptex, forged by her grandfather’s own hands, were trying to speak to her and offer some kind of resolution to the emptiness that had haunted her all these years. â€Å"Your grandfather and three others died tonight,† Teabing continued,† and they did so to keep this keystone away from the Church. Opus Dei came within inches tonight of possessing it. You understand, I hope, that this puts you in a position of exceptional responsibility. You have been handed a torch. A two-thousand-year-old flame that cannot be allowed to go out. This torch cannot fall into the wrong hands.† He paused, glancing at the rosewood box. â€Å"I realize you have been given no choice in this matter, Miss Neveu, but considering what is at stake here, you must either fully embrace this responsibility†¦ or you must pass that responsibility to someone else.† â€Å"My grandfather gave the cryptex to me. I’m sure he thought I could handle the responsibility.† Teabing looked encouraged but unconvinced. â€Å"Good. A strong will is necessary. And yet, I amcurious if you understand that successfully unlocking the keystone will bring with it a far greatertrial.† â€Å"How so?† â€Å"My dear, imagine that you are suddenly holding a map that reveals the location of the Holy Grail. In that moment, you will be in possession of a truth capable of altering history forever. You will be the keeper of a truth that man has sought for centuries. You will be faced with the responsibility of revealing that truth to the world. The individual who does so will be revered by many and despised by many. The question is whether you will have the necessary strength to carry out that task.† Sophie paused. â€Å"I’m not sure that is my decision to make.† Teabing’s eyebrows arched. â€Å"No? If not the possessor of the keystone, then who?† â€Å"The brotherhood who has successfully protected the secret for so long.† â€Å"The Priory?† Teabing looked skeptical. â€Å"But how? The brotherhood was shattered tonight. Decapitated, as you so aptly put it. Whether they were infiltrated by some kind of eavesdropping or by a spy within their ranks, we will never know, but the fact remains that someone got to them and uncovered the identities of their four top members. I would not trust anyone who stepped forward from the brotherhood at this point.† â€Å"So what do you suggest?† Langdon asked. â€Å"Robert, you know as well as I do that the Priory has not protected the truth all these years to have it gather dust until eternity. They have been waiting for the right moment in history to share their secret. A time when the world is ready to handle the truth.† â€Å"And you believe that moment has arrived?† Langdon asked. â€Å"Absolutely. It could not be more obvious. All the historical signs are in place, and if the Priory did not intend to make their secret known very soon, why has the Church now attacked?† Sophie argued,† The monk has not yet told us his purpose.† â€Å"The monk’s purpose is the Church’s purpose,† Teabing replied,† to destroy the documents that reveal the great deception. The Church came closer tonight than they have ever come, and the Priory has put its trust in you, Miss Neveu. The task of saving the Holy Grail clearly includes carrying out the Priory’s final wishes of sharing the truth with the world.† Langdon intervened. â€Å"Leigh, asking Sophie to make that decision is quite a load to drop on someone who only an hour ago learned the Sangreal documents exist.† Teabing sighed. â€Å"I apologize if I am pressing, Miss Neveu. Clearly I have always believed these documents should be made public, but in the end the decision belongs to you. I simply feel it is important that you begin to think about what happens should we succeed in opening the keystone.† â€Å"Gentlemen,† Sophie said, her voice firm. â€Å"To quote your words, ‘You do not find the Grail, the Grail finds you.’ I am going to trust that the Grail has found me for a reason, and when the time comes, I will know what to do.† Both of them looked startled. â€Å"So then,† she said, motioning to the rosewood box. â€Å"Let’s move on.† CHAPTER 70 Standing in the drawing room of Chateau Villette, Lieutenant Collet watched the dying fire and felt despondent. Captain Fache had arrived moments earlier and was now in the next room, yelling into the phone, trying to coordinate the failed attempt to locate the missing Range Rover. It could be anywhere by now, Collet thought. Having disobeyed Fache’s direct orders and lost Langdon for a second time, Collet was grateful that PTS had located a bullet hole in the floor, which at least corroborated Collet’s claims that a shot had been fired. Still, Fache’s mood was sour, and Collet sensed there would be dire repercussions when the dust settled. Unfortunately, the clues they were turning up here seemed to shed no light at all on what was going on or who was involved. The black Audi outside had been rented in a false name with false credit card numbers, and the prints in the car matched nothing in the Interpol database. Another agent hurried into the living room, his eyes urgent. â€Å"Where’s Captain Fache?† Collet barely looked up from the burning embers. â€Å"He’s on the phone.† â€Å"I’m off the phone,† Fache snapped, stalking into the room. â€Å"What have you got?† The second agent said,† Sir, Central just heard from Andre Vernet at the Depository Bank of Zurich. He wants to talk to you privately. He is changing his story.† â€Å"Oh?† Fache said. Now Collet looked up. â€Å"Vernet is admitting that Langdon and Neveu spent time inside his bank tonight.† â€Å"We figured that out,† Fache said. â€Å"Why did Vernet lie about it?† â€Å"He said he’ll talk only to you, but he’s agreed to cooperate fully.† â€Å"In exchange for what?† â€Å"For our keeping his bank’s name out of the news and also for helping him recover some stolen property. It sounds like Langdon and Neveu stole something from Sauniere’s account.† â€Å"What?† Collet blurted. â€Å"How?† Fache never flinched, his eyes riveted on the second agent. â€Å"What did they steal?† â€Å"Vernet didn’t elaborate, but he sounds like he’s willing to do anything to get it back.† Collet tried to imagine how this could happen. Maybe Langdon and Neveu had held a bank employee at gunpoint? Maybe they forced Vernet to open Sauniere’s account and facilitate an escape in the armored truck. As feasible as it was, Collet was having trouble believing Sophie Neveu could be involved in anything like that. From the kitchen, another agent yelled to Fache. â€Å"Captain? I’m going through Mr. Teabing’s speed dial numbers, and I’m on the phone with Le Bourget Airfield. I’ve got some bad news.† Thirty seconds later, Fache was packing up and preparing to leave Chateau Villette. He had just learned that Teabing kept a private jet nearby at Le Bourget Airfield and that the plane had taken off about a half hour ago. The Bourget representative on the phone had claimed not to know who was on the plane or where it was headed. The takeoff had been unscheduled, and no flight plan had been logged. Highly illegal, even for a small airfield. Fache was certain that by applying the right pressure, he could get the answers he was looking for. â€Å"Lieutenant Collet,† Fache barked, heading for the door. â€Å"I have no choice but to leave you in charge of the PTS investigation here. Try to do something right for a change.† CHAPTER 71 As the Hawker leveled off, with its nose aimed for England, Langdon carefully lifted the rosewood box from his lap, where he had been protecting it during takeoff. Now, as he set the box on the table, he could sense Sophie and Teabing leaning forward with anticipation. Unlatching the lid and opening the box, Langdon turned his attention not to the lettered dials of the cryptex, but rather to the tiny hole on the underside of the box lid. Using the tip of a pen, he carefully removed the inlaid Rose on top and revealed the text beneath it. Sub Rosa, he mused, hoping a fresh look at the text would bring clarity. Focusing all his energies, Langdon studied the strange text. The Da Vinci Code After several seconds, he began to feel the initial frustration resurfacing. â€Å"Leigh, I just can’t seem to place it.† From where Sophie was seated across the table, she could not yet see the text, but Langdon’s inability to immediately identify the language surprised her. My grandfather spoke a language so obscure that even a symbologist can’t identify it? She quickly realized she should not find this surprising. This would not be the first secret Jacques Sauniere had kept from his granddaughter. Opposite Sophie, Leigh Teabing felt ready to burst. Eager for his chance to see the text, he quivered with excitement, leaning in, trying to see around Langdon, who was still hunched over the box. â€Å"I don’t know,† Langdon whispered intently. â€Å"My first guess is a Semitic, but now I’m not so sure. Most primary Semitics include nekkudot.This has none.† â€Å"Probably ancient,† Teabing offered. â€Å"Nekkudot?† Sophie inquired. Teabing never took his eyes from the box. â€Å"Most modern Semitic alphabets have no vowels and use nekkudot – tiny dots and dashes written either below or within the consonants – to indicate what vowel sound accompanies them. Historically speaking, nekkudot are a relatively modern addition to language.† Langdon was still hovering over the script. â€Å"A Sephardic transliteration, perhaps†¦ ?† Teabing could bear it no longer. â€Å"Perhaps if I just†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Reaching over, he edged the box away from Langdon and pulled it toward himself. No doubt Langdon had a solid familiarity with the standard ancients – Greek, Latin, the Romances – but from the fleeting glance Teabing had of this language, he thought it looked more specialized, possibly a Rashi script or a STA’M with crowns. Taking a deep breath, Teabing feasted his eyes upon the engraving. He said nothing for a very long time. With each passing second, Teabing felt his confidence deflating. â€Å"I’m astonished,† he said.† This language looks like nothing I’ve ever seen!† Langdon slumped.† Might I see it?† Sophie asked. Teabing pretended not to hear her. â€Å"Robert, you said earlier that you thought you’d seen something like this before?† Langdon looked vexed. â€Å"I thought so. I’m not sure. The script looks familiar somehow.† â€Å"Leigh?† Sophie repeated, clearly not appreciating being left out of the discussion. â€Å"Might I have a look at the box my grandfather made?† â€Å"Of course, dear,† Teabing said, pushing it over to her. He hadn’t meant to sound belittling, and yet Sophie Neveu was light-years out of her league. If a British Royal Historian and a Harvard symbologist could not even identify the language – â€Å"Aah,† Sophie said, seconds after examining the box. â€Å"I should have guessed.† Teabing and Langdon turned in unison, staring at her.† Guessed what?† Teabing demanded. Sophie shrugged. â€Å"Guessed that this would be the language my grandfather would have used.† â€Å"You’re saying you can read this text?† Teabing exclaimed.† Quite easily,† Sophie chimed, obviously enjoying herself now. â€Å"My grandfather taught me this language when I was only six years old. I’m fluent.† She leaned across the table and fixed Teabing with an admonishing glare. â€Å"And frankly, sir, considering your allegiance to the Crown, I’m a little surprised you didn’t recognize it.† In a flash, Langdon knew. No wonder the script looks so damned familiar! Several years ago, Langdon had attended an event at Harvard’s Fogg Museum. Harvard dropout Bill Gates had returned to his alma mater to lend to the museum one of his priceless acquisitions – eighteen sheets of paper he had recently purchased at auction from the Armand Hammar Estate. His winning bid – a cool $30.8 million. The author of the pages – Leonardo Da Vinci. The eighteen folios – now known as Leonardo’s Codex Leicester after their famous owner, the Earl of Leicester – were all that remained of one of Leonardo’s most fascinating notebooks: essays and drawings outlining Da Vinci’s progressive theories on astronomy, geology, archaeology, and hydrology. Langdon would never forget his reaction after waiting in line and finally viewing the priceless parchment. Utter letdown. The pages were unintelligible. Despite being beautifully preserved and written in an impeccably neat penmanship – crimson ink on cream paper – the codex looked like gibberish. At first Langdon thought he could not read them because Da Vinci wrote his notebooks in an archaic Italian. But after studying them more closely, he realized he could not identify a single Italian word, or even one letter. â€Å"Try this, sir,† whispered the female docent at the display case. She motioned to a hand mirror affixed to the display on a chain. Langdon picked it up and examined the text in the mirror’s surface. Instantly it was clear. Langdon had been so eager to peruse some of the great thinker’s ideas that he had forgotten one of the man’s numerous artistic talents was an ability to write in a mirrored script that was virtually illegible to anyone other than himself. Historians still debated whether Da Vinci wrote this way simply to amuse himself or to keep people from peering over his shoulder and stealing his ideas, but the point was moot. Da Vinci did as he pleased. Sophie smiled inwardly to see that Robert understood her meaning. â€Å"I can read the first few words,† she said. â€Å"It’s English.† Teabing was still sputtering. â€Å"What’s going on?† â€Å"Reverse text,† Langdon said. â€Å"We need a mirror.† â€Å"No we don’t,† Sophie said. â€Å"I bet this veneer is thin enough.† She lifted the rosewood box up to a canister light on the wall and began examining the underside of the lid. Her grandfather couldn’t actually write in reverse, so he always cheated by writing normally and then flipping the paper over and tracing the reversed impression. Sophie’s guess was that he had wood-burned normal text into a block of wood and then run the back of the block through a sander until the wood was paper thin and the wood-burning could be seen through the wood. Then he’d simply flipped the piece over, and laid it in. As Sophie moved the lid closer to the light, she saw she was right. The bright beam sifted through the thin layer of wood, and the script appeared in reverse on the underside of the lid. Instantly legible.† English,† Teabing croaked, hanging his head in shame. â€Å"My native tongue.† At the rear of the plane, Remy Legaludec strained to hear beyond the rumbling engines, but the conversation up front was inaudible. Remy did not like the way the night was progressing. Not at all. He looked down at the bound monk at his feet. The man lay perfectly still now, as if in a trance of acceptance, or perhaps, in silent prayer for deliverance. CHAPTER 72 Fifteen thousand feet in the air, Robert Langdon felt the physical world fade away as all of his thoughts converged on Sauniere’s mirror-image poem, which was illuminated through the lid of the box. The Da Vinci Code Sophie quickly found some paper and copied it down longhand. When she was done, the three of them took turns reading the text. It was like some kind of archaeological crossword†¦ a riddle that promised to reveal how to open the cryptex. Langdon read the verse slowly. An ancient word of wisdom frees this scroll†¦ and helps us keep her scatter’d family whole†¦ a headstone praised by templars is the key†¦ and at bash will reveal the truth to thee. Before Langdon could even ponder what ancient password the verse was trying to reveal, he felt something far more fundamental resonate within him – the meter of the poem. Iambic pentameter. Langdon had come across this meter often over the years while researching secret societies across Europe, including just last year in the Vatican Secret Archives. For centuries, iambic pentameter had been a preferred poetic meter of outspoken literati across the globe, from the ancient Greek writer Archilochus to Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, and Voltaire – bold souls who chose to write their social commentaries in a meter that many of the day believed had mystical properties. The roots of iambic pentameter were deeply pagan. Iambs. Two syllables with opposite emphasis. Stressed and unstressed. Yin yang. A balanced pair. Arranged in strings of five. Pentameter. Five for the pentacle of Venus and the sacred feminine. â€Å"It’s pentameter!† Teabing blurted, turning to Langdon. â€Å"And the verse is in English! La lingua pura!† Langdon nodded. The Priory, like many European secret societies at odds with the Church, had considered English the only European pure language for centuries. Unlike French, Spanish, and Italian, which were rooted in Latin – the tongue of the Vatican – English was linguistically removed from Rome’s propaganda machine, and therefore became a sacred, secret tongue for those brotherhoods educated enough to learn it. â€Å"This poem,† Teabing gushed,† references not only the Grail, but the Knights Templar and the scattered family of Mary Magdalene! What more could we ask for?† â€Å"The password,† Sophie said, looking again at the poem. â€Å"It sounds like we need some kind of ancient word of wisdom?† â€Å"Abracadabra?† Teabing ventured, his eyes twinkling. A word of five letters, Langdon thought, pondering the staggering number of ancient words that might be considered words of wisdom – selections from mystic chants, astrological prophecies, secret society inductions, Wicca incantations, Egyptian magic spells, pagan mantras – the list was endless. â€Å"The password,† Sophie said, â€Å"appears to have something to do with the Templars.† She read the text aloud. † ‘A headstone praised by Templars is the key. ‘† â€Å"Leigh,† Langdon said, â€Å"you’re the Templar specialist. Any ideas?† Teabing was silent for several seconds and then sighed. â€Å"Well, a headstone is obviously a grave marker of some sort. It’s possible the poem is referencing a gravestone the Templars praised at the tomb of Magdalene, but that doesn’t help us much because we have no idea where her tomb is.† â€Å"The last line,† Sophie said,† says that Atbash will reveal the truth. I’ve heard that word. Atbash.† â€Å"I’m not surprised,† Langdon replied. â€Å"You probably heard it in Cryptology 101. The Atbash Cipher is one of the oldest codes known to man.† Of course! Sophie thought. The famous Hebrew encoding system. The Atbash Cipher had indeed been part of Sophie’s early cryptology training. The cipher dated back to 500 B. C. and was now used as a classroom example of a basic rotational substitution scheme. A common form of Jewish cryptogram, the Atbash Cipher was a simple substitution code based on the twenty-two-letter Hebrew alphabet. In Atbash, the first letter was substituted by the last letter, the second letter by the next to last letter, and so on. â€Å"Atbash is sublimely appropriate,† Teabing said. â€Å"Text encrypted with Atbash is found throughout the Kabbala, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and even the Old Testament. Jewish scholars and mystics are stillfinding hidden meanings using Atbash. The Priory certainly would include the Atbash Cipher as part of their teachings.† â€Å"The only problem,† Langdon said,† is that we don’t have anything on which to apply the cipher.† Teabing sighed. â€Å"There must be a code word on the headstone. We must find this headstone praised by Templars.† Sophie sensed from the grim look on Langdon’s face that finding the Templar headstone would be no small feat. Atbash is the key, Sophie thought. But we don’t have a door. It was three minutes later that Teabing heaved a frustrated sigh and shook his head. â€Å"My friends, I’m stymied. Let me ponder this while I get us some nibblies and check on Remy and our guest.† He stood up and headed for the back of the plane. Sophie felt tired as she watched him go. Outside the window, the blackness of the predawn was absolute. Sophie felt as if she were being hurtled through space with no idea where she would land. Having grown up solving her grandfather’s riddles, she had the uneasy sense right now that this poem before them contained information they still had not seen. There is more there, she told herself. Ingeniously hidden†¦ but present nonetheless. Also plaguing her thoughts was a fear that what they eventually found inside this cryptex would not be as simple as† a map to the Holy Grail.† Despite Teabing’s and Langdon’s confidence that the truth lay just within the marble cylinder, Sophie had solved enough of her grandfather’s treasure hunts to know that Jacques Sauniere did not give up his secrets easily. How to cite The Da Vinci Code Chapter 68-72, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Understanding of Digital Revolution for Strategy & Leadership

Question: Discuss about theUnderstanding of Digital Revolution for Strategy Leadership. Answer: The staff salary of Bethany, Courtney, and Anne has been represented by the excel sheet made for the development of the effective calculation and estimation of daily hours of working, hourly wages, and the total working hours of the organization. The overall expense is calculated by the help of the addition of these calculated values. From the excel it is evident that the Bethany, Courtney, and Anne have an average working hours and overall working hours are 3.3, 5, and 3.3 and 514.8, 1300, and 514.8 respectively. The total cost estimated for the salaries are $28600 and $3300 for general workers (5hrs/day, 100 working hours in total, and $33/hr) making it a total of $36,480. The employees have been handling the customers in their own way and the customers have their own payment methods for the number of books they received. Courtney had priced most number of books with respect to the aggregation by employee wise in compare to Bethany and Anne. The pricing by Courtney was better for most of the books whereas the pricing of books by Bethany and Anne is poor when compared to Courtney. The working hour of Courtney is more than both of the Bethany and Anne. Bethany, Courtney, and Anne have an average working hours of 3.3, 5, and 3.3 respectively. The overall working hours of Courtney was 1300 hours in compare to the 514.8 working hours of Bethany and Anne. Hence it has been evident that the implication of the better performance is due to the fact that the working hours of each of them would represent the final deliverable. By comparing between Anne and Bethany, Anne has been the worst in pricing the books. The average pricing would result in forming the impli cation of the effective implication of the analysis. The analysis had shown that most of the books have been priced good in the month of August when compared with the books priced in July and September. For the month of August, the average pricing has been very effective for the books. However, for the month of July and September, average pricing has been terrible for the books. The creation of the understanding is a major factor that had resulted in forming the understanding of the automation process. The transactions of the store in the provided time period limit that had been occurred would form the alignment of the keeping track records for most of the activities of the project. The overall transactions that have been taken place would be responsible for the implication of the effective operation development and the storage of the date and time for the interactions that have taken place. The implication of the operations would be implied for the remarking the employees for the books identified in the effective manner. The sorting of the books would be carried so that all the variables can be laid down in the excel software. The use of the excel would be helpful for the implication of the storage of the transactions from the 1st day to last working day The idea of the prices included in the study had been helpful for aligning to meet the expected deliverable of the paper. The use of this paper lies in the fact that the overall calculation had been made and covered the implication of the estimation of the final outcomes. The results attained by the development of the Ms-excel file would help in forming the analysis of the objective achievement or not. The prices that had been offered by the employees had been set in a precise manner for attaining the desired outcome. The customers have to pay only for the worth according to their conditions aligned and demand of the books. The market condition has employed for the analysis of the final deployment of the budget estimation. The customers only have been paying for the worth of their payment for aligning with the implementation of the successive marked operations. The study had uncovered that the total prices that have been offered to the accordance of the implementation of the historical data alignment for the projects. The alignment of the facts would be supplied for the effective alignment of the prices that had been offered for the effective price gaining in the shop. The study would also show that the purchased books might be assumed for being processed by Anne and Bethany. The alignment of the orders by Anne and Bethany would be supported by similar salary of Courtney as the revised prices of constructed materials were aligned for the implication of the basic percentage of operating cost acting over the general price of the books that has been estimated in the previous scenario. The prices framed had been helpful for providing effective level of returns for all the three employees. Bibliography Blitz, A. (2016). Beset by the digital revolution successful retailers embrace technology that enhances customer value.Strategy Leadership,44(6), 16-24. Gabor, D., Brooks, S. (2017). The digital revolution in financial inclusion: international development in the fintech era.New Political Economy,22(4), 423-436. Luengo, M. (2014). Constructing the Crisis of Journalism: Towards a cultural understanding of the economic collapse of newspapers during the digital revolution.Journalism studies,15(5), 576-585. Vanishree, K., Raghavendra, H. (2017). A Study on Implications of Digital Revolution in the Field of HR.Adarsh Journal of Management Research, 127-131.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Od Interventions Case Study free essay sample

Organization Development has been defined as a process by which behavioral science knowledge and practices are used to help organizations to achieve greater effectiveness, including improved quality of life, increased productivity, and improved product and service quality. Its focus is on improving the organizations ability to assess and to solve its own problems to move the organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction of organization members. At Tata Consultancy Services Limited, (TCSL), too OD interventions have been instrumental in facilitating change management and bringing about competitive advantage. OD has contributed to redefining the organization’s relationship to its environment, its markets and key stakeholders. This paper briefly explores an overview of OD interventions at organizational level, and focuses in particular on the case of a large relationship within the organization wherein OD has brought about a paradigm shift especially in the cultural perspective. We will write a custom essay sample on Od Interventions Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The structural alignment and commensurate cultural changes thereof have been facilitated in a deliberate manner to improve the total system – the relationship and its parts in the context of the larger market environment. Introduction: TCS -An Organizational Perspective The Pre-OD Scenario: Our Strengths and Areas of Concern In the years 1998-99, TCS had grown into the largest Indian software company with revenues of over Rs. 600 crores and racing towards achieving its vision of being global top ten. As pioneers in the industry, TCS’s strengths included on time delivery, premier position in the industry in terms of revenues, focus on training programs, quality initiatives, use of good technical tools and procedures and encouragement of individual excellence in performance. However, TCS was also, at that point in time, grappling with a few areas of concern with regard to its operational paradigm. Mounting revenue pressures: The pressure to retain its strong premier position led the organization to tend towards short-term revenues, and relatively lesser efforts were being put into medium and long-term markets and activities (such as products and building up knowledge). Though TCS built relationships with individual customers, Relationship Managers investment on aligning to long-term objectives of customers. The approach, by and large, was of reactive project management and we were yet to espouse the approach of architecting proactive solutions for the customer. Selectivity in projects: There was a tangible tension at TCS, between generating revenues and organizing strategically, on basis of technology and business areas, impacting selectivity in projects accepted. Pressures from customers on schedules was resulting in faster delivery and hence, snowballing into further pressure on future schedules . Focus on specialization: There was diffusion of expertise and we were yet to focus on building strategic expertise in individual centers. Employees were rotated across domains and skills in the interest of learn ability as well as for meeting requirements. In a sense, there was heightened focus on Voice of the Customer, in comparison to the Voice of Employee. Efforts on Experimentation Innovation: The management at TCS felt that by and large, employees tended to go straight by the book. Though Dr. De Bono’s techniques were introduced and employees trained on these techniques to encourage innovation, there was a need to scale up on perceived rewards for experimentation. Rewards and Recognitions: The reward structure at TCS was, at this point in time, primarily focused on individual performance and we were yet to explore the institutionalization of team based rewards at the organizational level. Inter group co-ordination knowledge sharing: Sharing of knowledge was very centre-oriented, and although, informally, best practices spread by interaction and word of mouth, we were yet to evolve a formal system which would capture these for ease of replication across projects. Multiple centers and multiple projects within the same centre ended up resolving the same sort of issues, resulting in avoidable rework. Branding and PR: Image building endeavors were not yet an area of focus and, in a subtle way, this affected the sense of pride of employees. Among educational institutions, this meant greater difficulty in terms of attracting quality talent, which further aggravated stress among the few key performers in the organization. By the year 2002, management felt the conscious need to bring in changes in our approach to the aforementioned areas, in order to align more closely with the customer, business and market requirements at an organizational level. Alignment and Structure at TCS With respect to alignment, there was a need to create an environment of dialogue between system dynamics and human dynamics in the organization. Strategy comes from the market, form comes from structure; capacity from technology; and synergy from culture. The organizational design at that point needed to incorporate this holism and thereby bring in, a coherent organizational identity. The flow of philosophy to policy to practice and further to procedure in organizational design, needed to be re-looked at neutrally. In the interest of alignment of strategy and culture, the need for a dynamic process of dialogue between the â€Å"Generals and the Scouts† was also felt. Alignment and Attunement: As an answer to the above areas of concern, alignment and attunement were sought to be achieved through integrating and balancing out the four voices: †¢ Voice of Wealth †¢ Voice of Employee †¢ Voice of Customer †¢ Voice of Technology The Organizational Development interventions at TCS focused on balancing tensions arising from these four voices along dimensions ofstrategizing, valuing, serving, energizing, investing and improving. An internal organization workshop was conducted with top management for scenario building. This program focused at a larger level, on the â€Å"The TCS that can be â€Å". The idea was to challenge the conventional ways of thinking and to give shape to the key drivers of change through realistic listening and dialoguing. These workshops were followed by dissemination and communication of the scenarios with teams in order to develop a new language in the organization, consistent with the envisaged future scenario. As a fallout of this workshop, several representatives of senior management worked on building scenarios as for e. g. on TCS tools and approach to high end consulting. These looked at what we were and what we wished to be, our competition, changes and challenges with regard to our business models, technologies, products and support functions. Further, the factors that ould facilitate the desired change and focuses that needed to be redefined were clearly laid down. The OD Challenge: Creating order rhythm in the centrifugal and centripetal movements of the 4 zones Scenario Building Workshops: An internal organization workshop was conducted with top management for scenario building. This program focused at a larger level, on the â€Å"TheTCS that can be â€Å". The idea was to challenge the conventional ways of thinking and to give shape to the key drivers of change through realistic listening and dialoguing. These workshops were followed by dissemination and communication of the scenarios with teams in order to develop a new language in the organization, consistent with the envisaged future scenario. As a fallout of this workshop, several representatives of senior management worked on building scenarios as for e. g. on TCS tools and approach to high end consulting. These looked at what we were and what we wished to be, our competition, changes and challenges with regard to our business models, technologies, products and support functions. Further, the factors that would facilitate the desired change and focuses that needed to be redefined were clearly laid down. The scenarios addressed the nature of the struggle the organization would go through and etched out realistic possibilities based on present factors. The roles and context that would impinge on the following were detailed †¢ Wealth creation †¢ Factors which will enhance productivity and enhance the feeling of being valued †¢ Resource allocation and team-work †¢ Membership criteria and norms of the group Learning opportunities for individuals and teams Goal Alignment Balanced Scorecard: In the interest of better alignment, a need was felt to re-look at a few organizational processes and systems, as for instance, the performance management and appraisal system at TCS. A Teach-Train-Transfer workshop on Goal alignment was conducted, with help from expert OD consultants to build the context, to think through goal setting at TCS with a systems perspective to goal alignment to explore means of institutionalizing goal-oriented erformance management within the organization. The workshop further introduced the concept of the Personal Score Card, and clearly outlined what would define goals, outputs, performance management, Economic Value adds the ways and means for facilitating goal alignment. The Balanced Scorecard approach was proposed, introducing corporate goals, which touched upon the following: Voice of the Shareholder Financial Goals e. g. Wealth creation Vector of Technology – Technology Goals e. g. Quality, Cost, Delivery dimensions Voice of the Customer – Customer/ Market Goals e. g. Customer Satisfaction Voice of the Employee – Learning Development e. g. Employee Satisfaction Further the relevance of the corporate goal template at the relationship level was explored and the subsequent cascading to individual level (Organizational to Relationship to Personal Scorecard). Goal specification frameworks, derived from the key performance parameters of the unit were chalked out. While the goal was treated as a virtual entity, the measurement was extended to deliverables on a day-to-day basis (outputs). Further, workflow reviews were done with the objective of deploying an on-line regular review process and system to track individual performance against stated goals. The linkage with incentivesand value add drivers, was also thought through to determine the reward framework, based on published results as against goals. Hereby, strategic objectives and measures agreed upon by the function/ geography/ delivery and relationship heads would be cascaded to subsequent roles as appropriate, ensuring performance in alignment with the larger vision of the organization. Identification of talent for higher responsibility was also seen as a key focus area, highlighting the need to have a focused Career Planning and Mentoring process. The process of role alignment was further thought through, as well as the need for assessment and coaching for role transitions. Towards employee satisfaction and towards ensuring sustained availability of sufficient managerial and leadership talent, the need to create succession plans at all levels and to track and reward high fliers was brought out. This further, lead to the formulation of career paths in TCS global services, consulting and products, supported by HR processes, tools and support staff. This structure was designed to enable a fair degree of flexibility in rotating at appropriate levels, which would provide avenues for individual growth. Besides, there was an exercise to bring out new role definitions in Human Resources (HR), focusing on alignment, energizing and task facilitation through HR. Business leaders dialogued to evolve the mission and expectations and further, to design enablers for continuous change, team work, and individual growth. PROPEL – The Intervention: Culture Building at TCS PROPEL was introduced as a revolutionary intervention with the dual objectives of facilitating the exchange of ideas and helping in immediate problem solving, while also encouraging bonding and self-development among and within teams. As the organization and its relationships grew, it brought its own challenges, whereas change remained a constant. PROPEL was introduced as a platform and a tool to help bring about this change, in consonance with the TCS belief of â€Å"Let us make it a joy for all our stakeholders†. Promoting continuous improvement at a cross-functional level was one of the envisaged objectives. Change management was enabled through alignment with growth strategy; by creating platforms for dialogue on the current and emerging experience of the organization. PROPEL has helped the organization build a culture of collaboration,creativity and also networks of relationships through its two modes: 1. Confluences: Listening to the voice of the employee in a team scenario, by creating a platform for open sharing of thoughts on a relevant theme. This is achieved through a balance of fun, introspection and interaction, while evoking commitment to self-development. 2. Camps: Platform for problem solving, focus on the Quality, Cost and Delivery measures of throughput resulting in transfer and adoption of best practices within and amongst relationships in the organization. Further on, this paper explores the case of a large relationship which espoused PROPEL interventions to bring about effective quantifiable results in the interest of relationship robustness, market agility and a fine balance in the culture perspective. The case of a large relationship at TCS: Team Alignment through PROPEL framework Spiral Dynamics Team alignment was a PROPEL application initiated for members of this large relationship, to reflect on its own state, to build a coherent statement of current realities and to channel potent restlessness and dissatisfactions within the relationship, into a convergent blueprint of responsiveness and new levels of maturity. It looked at redefining desirable role behaviors, and hence conveyed responsibility for movement at the collective as well as individual levels, for the team. This was brought about through the following stages 1. Initiation: The Spiral dynamics framework was used to map the relationship in terms of its evolution. Tools were administered to a group of Project Managers to identify the gaps between where the team is (current state) and where it should be (desired state) and the steps to be taken to bridge this gap. Spiral Dynamics posits that the evolution of human consciousness can best be represented by a dynamic, upward spiraling structure that charts our evolving thinking systems as they arc higher and higher through levels of increasing complexity. The spiral in spiral dynamics contains the blueprints of patterns for sequential development of Cultures. The spirals first tier is a set of six memes (beige, purple, red, blue, orange and green) characterized by existence or subsistence, or the â€Å"survival-level† concerns. Second tier of yellow and turquoise works to create healthy forms of all the first tier systems, in the context of an information-rich, highly mobile global community. 2. Awareness sessions Workshops: Overviews on Spiral Dynamics and its application to achieve team alignment was shared with theteam.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Cardiovascular Diseases Medicine Essay Sample

Cardiovascular Diseases Medicine Essay Sample Cardiovascular Diseases: Causes and Prevention Essay Example Cardiovascular Diseases: Causes and Prevention Essay Example Cardiovascular diseases are a topic that is widely popular and constantly discussed among physicians. Cardiovascular diseases, colloquially abbreviated as CVDs, refer to those illnesses associated to both the heart and blood vessels (Bauer, 2011). As far as medical research is concerned, there are myriad of cardiovascular diseases, each with associated symptoms and causes. Common CVDs include hypertensive heart disease, stroke, ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease and rheumatic heart disease. There are associated cardiovascular illnesses that are not significantly dominant; these include atrial fibrillation, aortic aneurysms and cardiomyopathy. This paper examines cardiovascular diseases and their causes. The paper will broadly be divided into three sections: cardiovascular diseases, main causes and prevention techniques. The essay will subscribe to both scholarly articles and scientific literatures to offer a comprehensive coverage of the topic. Stroke, also called cardiovascular arrest, is the leading cardiovascular disease (Labarthe, 2011). Stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is immediately interrupted. Strokes often appear in two ways. The first type involves the cases when blood vessels transporting blood to the brain might break leading to immense bleeding inside the brain. This type of cardiovascular arrest is called hemorrhagic and is mostly common in old people and those experiencing heart diseases and conditions. The second type of stroke is the ischemic stroke. This happens when a clot forms inside the blood vessel transporting blood to the brain abruptly stopping the supply of blood. The second type of stroke is the most common and usually proceeds due to a number of reasons including old age, shock and associated cardiovascular illnesses and conditions (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Often, stroke as a type of cardiovascular disease occurs as a result of blood blockage inside the brai n leading to death of important brain cells. When cells do not receive blood, they are not oxygenated, which means that they can easily die due to shortage of oxygen. More specifically, stroke occurs due to the failure of blood to reach the brain, which results into death of cells. The American Heart Association observes that strokes kill close to 130,000 people in the United States per year. This figure translates to one in every 20 deaths (American Heart Association, 2015). On average, the AHA states that in every four minutes, one American dies of stroke. Another statistic quotes that annually, more than 785,000 Americans are diagnosed with some form of stroke. Of all these victims, approximately 61,000 are first to the disease or completely new to some form of heart illness (Watson Preedy, 2012). Overall, medical sources and health research institutes are in unanimous agreement that stroke is the fifth leading cause of demise for the American population (American Heart Associat ion, 1997). Stroke Variance with Age Scientists who have conducted research in cardiovascular illnesses argue that stroke is the greatest and most dreaded form of the disease. The number of people who continue to die from strokes is overwhelming meaning that this condition is a national health disaster. Now, it has become a common phenomenon and principle that the chance to have a stroke increases with age. More specifically, older people are amenable to a higher risk than their young counterparts. A study conducted by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention observes that in 2009, 34% of patients diagnosed with stroke were 65 years and above (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). This means that three-quarters of stroke victims were more than 65 years in age. In such a way, it is clear that stroke is a condition that needs to be evaluated from the age-criterion. Geographic Distribution of Stroke Geographically, the southeastern part of the United States hosts the largest number of stroke victims. The prevalence of stroke across the United States is mostly attributed to the southeastern part (Smith, 2009). The states where the cases of strokes are multiple include Georgia, Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, Maryland, Louisiana, Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee and the District of Columbia. Statistically, these states represent the highest number of stroke victims meaning that a close analysis and evaluation of the population should be done. Geographic distribution of strokes has been researched to identify if environmental and social problems are potent factors influencing cardiac arrest or strokes. In addition, recording the number of victims in each state and determining the leading states with victims is an important step in the fight against this cardiovascular disease. Causes Stroke is a cardiovascular disease meaning that it affects the heart and blood vessels. However, stroke is not anonymous, and similar to many other health conditions, it comes as a result of certain causes. High blood pressure is directly linked to stroke, which makes it the leading cause. When the rate of blood flow is high, the plasma is likely to build a clot. Dr. Kenneth Bauer, the managing director of Harvard Medical School argues that enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) influences blood clot; thus, taking aspirin may help inactivate this enzyme (Bauer, 2011). Stroke victims are prescribed aspirin-related drugs and substances to inactive the enzyme and minimize the formation of blood clot inside blood vessels. Aspirin drugs inactivate the enzyme making platelets less sticky and overall reducing their likelihood to clot. However, high blood pressure may activate the enzyme leading to stroke. Therefore, high blood pressure is likely to induce stroke. People, especially those who are ident ified to be amenable to strokes, should be cautious on conditions that may increase blood pressure (Spence, 2006). The second fold of causes for stroke is cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy and thick substance made in the liver and found in most consumed foods (Spence, 2006). Often, high amounts of cholesterol are perilous as they build around arties leading to slowed rate of blood flow. In such a way, cholesterol deposit in the artery narrows vessels, which leads to failure of blood flow towards the brain. In addition, cholesterol buildup slows down blood supply, which may become a precondition to a stroke and associated conditions of cardiovascular illnesses. The third fold of causes for cardiovascular diseases is connected with lifestyle. Most people are exposed to consuming take away foods and associated meals, which increases the risk of having a heart disease. Basically, red meat and junks pose the risk of heart diseases. More specifically, they cause such heart conditions as valve failures and irregular heartbeats. The cumulative force of these conditions leads to the overall comprise of blood flow into the heart. As seen above, stroke comes as a result of failure of blood to reach the heart and vessels’ complete destruction, which leads to blood deposit inside the heart. Therefore, it is clear that lifestyle and courtesy of consumed foods can result to increased chances of heart conditions leading to stroke. Physicians have pursued research that links diabetes to stroke. For example, Albini et al. in the study of cardiotoxicity argue that diabetes mellitus attracts conditions related to stroke (Albini, Pennesi, Donatelli, Cammarota, De Flora, Noonan, 2009). Indeed, diabetes leads to a stark shortage of insulin, an enzyme that is responsible for the transportation of sugar and glucose inside brain cells. Lack of transportation of sugar leads to a build-up of glucose inside the vessels. This thickens the blood making it very hard for a streamlined flow. Other causes associated with stroke include the sickle cell disease, salt, lack of physical activities and transient attacks. These causes are less sensitive than the ones mentioned above although some of them pose equally greater challenges for stroke. The International Journal for Nursing Studies observes that cardiac disorders are potent entry points for stroke. The journal advises that slight illnesses and diseases that have dominant connection with stroke should be taken seriously by physicians and medical experts. This should be done to minimize the greater risk of stroke, both hemorrhagic and ischemic arrests (IJNS, 2014). The next part of the essay examines signs and symptoms of stroke. This part of the paper will subscribe to medical journals and related publications to give a comprehensive coverage of symptoms that a typical for stroke victims. Signs and Symptoms of Stroke A sudden numbness on the face, hand and arm is the first characteristic of an upcoming stroke. Patients recently diagnosed of ischemic stroke report sudden dysfunction of these organs. The Center of Disease Control is in agreement with the Clinical Digest that stroke is likely to induce failure in movement of these body organs leading to a reduced flow of blood. Confused and slowed speech is another symptom. Patients attacked by stroke are reported to experience difficulties in understanding, communication and a stark inability for speech. There are reported cases of sight failure. Stroke patients experience trouble seeing and perceiving sight with both eyes. In a number of cases, one eye is open although the other fails to function. This failure is mostly attributable to the section of the brain that is subject to low blood supply. The inability to see ensues from the fact cells on this particular side of the eye are dead. Loss of balance and lack of proper coordination is another symptom of stroke. Patients stagger, tremble physically and fail to identify direction. This failure mostly comes as a result of the cerebrum damage. Lack of blood supply to the brain incapacitates the cerebrum, which is part of human’s brain responsible for movement, locomotion and balance. The International Journal of Nursing observes that stroke induces severe headache. Stroke victims experience continuous aches on the left side of the head. This is the section mostly hit by lack of sufficient blood supply (Esselstyn, 2007). Other sources argue that there are both acute and sub-acute cardiotoxicity on the brain, which leads to severe incidences of headache. The force of headache as a result of stroke is what leads to associated symptoms: confusion, dizziness and to some extent lack of speech. Prevention and Risk Minimization Similar to most cardiovascular diseases, stroke can be minimized and potentially prevented. However, due to genetic reasons, it is hard to prevent it at a later stage, especially for individuals whose families have encountered this CVD. The first fold of efforts to prevent stroke is to identify risk factors. These include previous heart diseases, high levels of cholesterol in food, lifestyle, conditions and signs of high blood pressure, diabetes and sickle cell illness. Identification of the above risk factors enables the physician notice the possibility of a stroke. Therefore, it is easy to prepare for a stroke through prescription of appropriate medication including aspirin (Bauer, 2011). Another risk minimization technique is exercises. Physical activities burn excessive fats and oils. This makes it hard for cholesterol to deposit inside the walls of blood vessels. Physical activities and exercises also increase the rate of heart beat allowing cardiac muscles to range with the unprecedented pace. More specifically, when the heart continuously pumps due to exercise, there is a significant increase in the strength of valves and tendons. These components of the heart become strong and do not fail due to an unexpected shock. In a publication to counter the risk of cardiovascular arrest or stroke, the Harvard School of Medicine observes that lowering blood pressure by eating low quantities of salt is important. The source also supports loss of weight and consumption of adequate water as imperative towards preventing stroke (Bauer, 2011). Water burns cholesterol, fats and oils inside the human body minimizing deposits in cardio-vascular walls. Also, behavior has an impact in the formation of stroke-related conditions. Smokers are twice more likely to experience cardiac arrests than other people. Smoking also accelerates the formation of clot in myriad ways. It heightens the build-up of plaque and thickens the blood. Dr. Smith of the Harvard School of Medicine notes that smoking cessation is among the leading lifestyles that will help smokers reduce the risk of stroke (Smith, 2009). The final effort to prevent and minimize the risk of arrest involves medication. The Journal Cardiotoxicity of Anticancer Drugs argues that it is more likely for a patient to suffer from both cancer and stroke. These diseases are related, and, therefore, there is a growing need to put special emphasis on antitoxic medications that are likely to counter initial effects. Doctor Bauer attaches critical significance to aspirin prescriptions in efforts to minimize the effects and attack of stroke. More specifically, aspirin inactivates enzyme cyclooxygenase, which hinders the formation of blood clot. Therefore, aspiring should be prescribed on a continuous for patients with potent signs of cardiac arrest. However, in cases of surgeries or when patients are likely to undergo a surgical operation and exercise, aspirin intake should be monitored or completely eliminated. Failure to do this might lead to a rebound effect, which is a phenomenon that increases the chances of having stroke twice . Thus, as much as prescriptions should be leveraged to counter adverse risks and conditions, they should be monitored on individuals depending on previous medical records. The above efforts represent the overall collective fight with stroke and the majority of cardiovascular illnesses. Observing the above measures will not only save a patient from stroke. It will equally assist them to prevent an array of CVDs: hypersensitivity, peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, atrial fibrillation and aortic aneurysms. Fight against Cardiovascular Illnesses – The American Heart Association The efforts of the American Heart Association (AHA) in making heart disease an important topic for Americans cannot be overlooked. The association drives critical cardiovascular models, systems and changes all over the United States. This is done to achieve the best practice in healthcare. By visiting the association’s website, one will be impressed by the number of initiatives, campaigns, researches and studies going on in the creation of lifestyle and health awareness on CVDs. The American Heart Association represents the collective efforts towards fighting cardiovascular illnesses. Obviously, it is high time to unite and implement the efforts that have been channeled in making healthcare a priority. The American Heart Association is not a building, as well as it is not a structure. Neither is it an erection or a fabrication. The association is a body of concerned Americans willing to champion the well-being of the nation. The large body of professionals, volunteers and supp orters incorporated inside the AHA is what moves the nation closer to the American dream. This represents the collective fight towards cardiovascular illnesses, in particular, stroke and associated heart diseases. The essay has described the phenomenon of cardiovascular illnesses. The paper has dissected into three primary sections: causes of cardiovascular illnesses (the most dominant which is stroke), signs and symptoms of stroke and associated heart diseases, and prevention and risk minimization techniques. The essay examines myriad academic sources and medicine journals to offer an expansive and critical view to the topic. Of special concern for the paper was to examine the current and future fight towards cardiovascular diseases. Here, the paper has identified the American Heart Association as the greatest body of advocacy and awareness against cardiovascular illnesses. The above analysis surmises the paper adding knowledge and creating insight into the threat of cardiovascular illnesses.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

South Asian Sufism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

South Asian Sufism - Research Paper Example This diversity has to a certain extent been created by the subcontinent?s numerous linguistic and cultural customs and its unique networks beyond the region. In terms of Islamic roots, Sufism has, in a way, played a key role in the spread of Islamic devotional and spiritual life in South Asia. At some stage in the eighth and ninth centuries A.D., a novel prominence began to grow within Islam. This prominence was a constructive response against the established uncongenial and ceremonial nature of Islam. The quest for deeper meaning started with a pietistic simplicity, which in turn led to the advance of the well-acknowledged mystical side of Islam - known as Tasawwuf or Sufism. Sufism is in essence a spiritual form of Islam focusing on the connection between the individual and divinity. The Sufis surfaced in South Asia around 800 years ago, and were initially stanch devotees, whose meager woolen attire signified their humility, hence the word â€Å"Sufi† that denotes Arabic wor d for wool. The Sufis sought the mysticism, divine realism or eventual truth that stands over all the fantasies and deceptions about the materialistic society. In order to attain ecstatic unification with God, Sufis integrated practices of sound and actions -- chanting and harmony, swaying and dance. Sufi followers joined in closed brotherhoods or tariqahs, each following a captivating leader (shaykh). They offered an Islam that fused South Asian customs and worship styles, including Christian saints and Hindu gods. Sufism highlights the importance of â€Å"Real†, as distinctive from a faint acceptance of what is considered to be real in everyday existence, by authentic comprehension of the self and the 'veils' which separate it from any understanding of the truth. (ELWELL-SUTTON). This also implies a quest for real existence. It also emphasized empathy from one soul to another, in spite of all other differences. The Sufi trend drew attraction throughout South Asia (as well a s Eurasia and Eastern Europe) can be recapitulated in Rafiq Zakaria?s book as: â€Å"Though unconcerned with affairs of state, the sufis had a profound influence on the Muslim polity. They humanized its rigours and reduced the area of conflict between religion and politics. They gave Islam a broader base. Non-Muslims flocked to sufi hospices in large numbers and in due course hundreds of thousands came into the fold of Islam. . . .† (Zakaria) Sufism: Spirituality or Libertarianism? Despite the fact that Sufism has been majorly identified as the spiritual and mystic extension of Islam, parts of literary research argues about the existence of Sufism as a political entity. For example, the way Sufis' tombs surfaced and grew as places of pilgrimage indicate that the ‘missionary’ agenda of the Islamic mystics was devised primarily for conversion and the establishment of Perso-Arabian cultural control in South Asia (R.Upadhyay). Despite of the cultural relevance of Suf ism, over the period of time, differences have also arisen from divergence of interests among Muslims over what should be the right standard for cultural and political life. As Sufism endorsed various forms of cultural articulation, it did not extend unilaterally as a response to orthodoxy and legalistic rigorism but from time to time it harmonized and engaged in these developments. In the same way, hostility between shari‘a (law) and tariqa (Sufi path) in Islam is an open topic of debate, although Sufi researchers emphasize that